Other Resources

Web Resources

There are some great websites around the place. Here is a selection:

Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.teara.govt.nz/. This has a great section of biographies, and sections on ‘Government and Nation’, ‘Maori New Zealanders’, and ‘New Zealand Peoples’. A good starting point for most subjects.

NZHistory.Net website, http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/. This is like an earlier version of Te Ara. It is still updated and is helpful for quickly checking a story or fact.

Heritage New Zealand/Pouhere Taonga (Historic Places Trust). Find out about our significant New Zealand places, and become a member! Here’s the link to the ‘places to visit’ page: http://www.heritage.org.nz/places/places-to-visit.

National Library of New Zealand, http://natlib.govt.nz/. The National Library in Wellington is an amazing repository of the country’s history. You can search the collections and many online collections, including images, on their website.

Papers Pasthttp://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/. An amazing online resource, Papers Past contains more than three million pages of digitised New Zealand newspapers and periodicals. The collection covers the years 1839 to 1948 and includes 120 publications from all regions of New Zealand.

Waitangi, Tears or Joy?

A sermon at St. John's Cathedral, Napier, Waitangi Day, 2005,  Jon Williams February 6, 2005

‘Waitangi’, literally ‘Weeping Waters’, or ‘Sounding Waters’ – sounds of weeping, or of joy? That great and rightly beloved New Zealander Michael King, a man with a huge heart for our country and its peoples was of the opinion that Waitangi Day should not be our national day. With the greatest respect I disagree.

Of course there are difficulties.

  • There may be protests this morning, at Waitangi, or elsewhere, dignified, or otherwise. But surely we need a day for rejoicing in our Nation!,
  • The treaty was signed long ago, in different circumstances from ours, not by all the chiefs. The intentions of those who signed were various at the time.
  • Some Citizens throughout our history from the beginning have belittled or ignored it. There has been conflict and injustice.
  • Settler governments have found ingenious ways around it. There have sometimes been unjustifiable compensation claims from the Maori side. And so on. All such might indeed be a cause for tears.

Such negative matters are confusing for many, disheartening for some. Let them not be the centre of our attention this morning. We need a focus for joy. Indeed we do. The Treaty of Waitangi provides such a focus, without denying the problems, and does so in a way that is healthy and not sentimental. The Treaty celebrates community building and does not, for instance focus only on war, its struggles or. its victories. The Treaty reflects all periods of our history and not just the beginning; it acknowledges the stories of our past and of our present.

Of stories there are many. Stories of pioneer hardship endured and overcome: stories of labour and enterprise and achievement, stories of exploration and invention, of political conflict and the growth of nationhood, of the fortunes of our sportspeople. Not least there are the stories of our own personal roots and families. Many more New Zealanders are now discovering and owning their personal roots as citizens of Aotearoa New Zealand., seeing themselves as sharing in the story of our nation.

More sure then of who we are we feel more free to enjoy the stories of this country’s first people, doing so with neither condescension nor hostility, but because we own their stories as the heritage of our brothers and sisters.

In this great picture the Treaty is a focal point, from which we can look around at the detail. Very significantly, it is referred to as a covenant, a key Bible word. Covenant refers first in our Scripture to the solemn promises made between God and Israel at Sinai. One point is fascinating I think. Scholars of the ancient record in the Book of Exodus tell us that the covenant began with just a few tribes, but that others associated with them were later brought into this special relationship together with the Living God. Can we not see a parallel here with the compact between Maori and the Crown, which later came to include the many kinds of people who have come here through the years under the auspices of the settler government.

Much has been made of some apparently ambiguous language in the Maori version of the Treaty, in particular the use of two terms, kawanatanga and rangatiratanga. The specially invented word kawanatanga refers to the the authority of the Queen and of her government, while rangatiratanga applies to the authority of the chiefs. Was Henry Williams the missionary, in order to sell the treaty, deliberately using these terms in such a way that each party would believe they had the best of the bargain?

A recent academic paper throws fresh light on the mind of our missionary Henry Williams. More than once Henry W. called the Treaty the Magna Carta of the New Zealanders, (i.e of the Maori). Very significantly, for his type of Englishman, Magna Carta stood for the limiting of the powers of the monarch and a guarantee for ever of the rights and freedoms of British subjects. Accordingly he saw the role of the crown, kawanatanga, as limited to keeping the peace and maintaining law and order. The rangatiratanga of the chiefs, on the other hand, meant all their rights, not only to property, and their authority to maintain their own customs. Now, even though his view may have become in some ways, increasingly impractical, it was sincere and tenable at the time. We do not need to be ashamed of our church’s role, or of our missionary, not in the least.

I would like to read to you the aims of a group of young Christians of our time. (Read extract, A Christian view of Te Tiriti o Waitangi. Samuel Carpenter)

A challenging attitude, don’t you think? This statement comes from the same source as the paper I mentioned. What the aims do not mention is that our Anglican Church is also guardian of the Treaty. Indeed we are. As Anglicans we have, all of us, an irreplaceable part to play in our country.

We Anglican Christians are those who understand that the Treaty is like a covenant, is in fact rather like a marriage, “For better, for worse, for richer, for poorer, in sickness and in health, to love and to cherish, until death us do part.” Changing lifestyles or practical arrangements, the bad behaviour of one party or the other may put great pressure on a marriage, but do not automatically abolish it. The alternative is to talk through the problems, to change behaviours and attitudes, to negotiate new arrangements and responsibilities, to keep working at it. To abandon the Treaty on the other hand would surely unleash a Pandora’s box of despair, distrust and harmful recrimination.

It is to positive healing and just actions that the Treaty calls our peoples in every generation, steps which require courage, vision and love. As members of the Body of Christ can we not call on an inexhaustible supply of such things, so essential for the well being of our nation? We are given the power to be adaptable and generous. Among those who demonstrate them in our public behaviour, in how we treat, think of and speak about our fellow citizens, we are called to be in the forefront, to give heart to others of good will. The letter of the treaty will not guarantee a healthy nation, but to honour the Treaty, to celebrate what it stands for and reflect on our commitment, as we are this morning, on February 6th., can do a great deal to keep our nation on course. To abandon this covenant is unthinkable.

NZ Mission Bibliography

Thanks to Peter Lineham, Associate Professor of History, Massey University Albany for this extensive list of references on missions work in Aotearoa New Zealand. The list is arranged alphabetically and is divided into subject areas which include the Catholic Marist Mission, Church Missionary Society, CMS Biographies, Maori Catechists & Missionaries, Maori Christianity, Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Biographies, and the Williams family.

NZMissionBibliography – Lineham

The Treaty and Ngāpuhi Prophecy

Rima Edwards gives a Ngāpuhi view of Te Tiriti o Waitangi
'According to Heke Pokai [Hone Heke] and Ngamanu, Henry Williams and Busby explained to the Rangatira that Kawanatanga meant and was: "A parent Governor on the basis of love" ' (from p 65)

'Te Tiriti o Waitangi is the agreement by the Rangatira of the Hapu for Queen Victoria and her Pakeha people to enter into this land and to establish her house, called Kawanatanga [Government], as a backsupport for Tino Rangatiratanga and Tino Rangatiratanga as a backsupport for Queen Victoria's Kawanatanga.' (Aperahama Taonui, cited pp 78-79)

The following brief of evidence from Mr Edwards was presented to the Waitangi Tribunal's Te Raki/Northland inquiry:
(used with permission)

R Edwards – evidence Tribunal – 2010

Being Pakeha Now

 ...from Michael King, Being Pakeha Now. Reflections and Recollections of a White Native(Penguin, 1999):

When I wrote a book called Being Pakeha in the early 1980s it emerged from a very different social and cultural climate than that which exists in New Zealand on the cusp of the twenty-first century. Then, it seemed to me, the most important task facing a historian of my background was to make Maori preoccupations and expectations intelligible to Pakeha New Zealanders; to make it clear why I believed that Maori had every right to be Maori in their own country and to expect Pakeha to respect them….

Two decades on, with the Maori renaissance and Waitangi Tribunal process in full flow, that need has been met. New Zealand is for the first time making a conscious effort to accommodate Maori grievances and aspirations. What I am conscious of now is a rather different but equally pressing need. It is to explain Pakeha New Zealanders to Maori and to themselves;….

The effect of my travels [abroad] in that year and the one following was unexpected. I felt more, not less, a New Zealander. I became more deeply conscious of my roots in my own country because I had experienced their absence. I missed physical things, like empty land and seascapes, driftwood fires, bush, New Zealand birdsong. And I missed common perspectives with Maori and Pakeha New Zealanders: the short-cuts to communication that people from the same cultures share in accepted reference points, recognised allusions, a similar sense of comparison, contrast and incongruity, a peculiar sense of humour….

It is difficult to enumerate all the ingredients of a feeling of belonging. But for me they lie almost exclusively in New Zealand. Other people and other cultures have contributed to them, but the mixture and emphases are our own, and they are valuable…. If we want to remain New Zealanders, to feel like New Zealanders, to act like New Zealanders, to present ourselves to the wider world as New Zealanders – then we must be able to listen to our own voices and trace our own footsteps; we must have our own heroes and heroines to inspire us, our own epics to both uplift and caution us; we must persist in building our own culture with our own ingredients to hand, and not import those ingredients ready-made from abroad. We can never shut out the rest of the world, but we must try to greet it as an equal partner – not as a land culturally bereft and waiting to be colonised and exploited a second time.

150th Williams Family Commemorations

 ...from Te Ao Hou magazine (1973):

In May [1973] about 700 descendants of the pioneer missionaries Henry and William Williams gathered at Paihia to commemorate 150 years since Henry, the first ordained Anglican missionary, landed at the Bay of Islands. Also present were many of the Maori clergy, particularly of the Waiapu Diocese, to whom an open invitation had been extended. The four days of celebrations culminated on the Sunday when the Williams family were welcomed onto the Tiriti-o-Waitangi Marae [other comments indicate this was the lower marae of Te Tii, rather than the marae/meeting house on the Treaty grounds]

In the morning a commemorative service of thanksgiving was held outside the stone church of St Paul, built in 1926 as a memorial to the missionary brothers. Here nearly 1,000 people assembled at a communion service celebrated by the Bishop of Auckland, assisted by the Bishops of Waiapu and Aotearoa and the Rt Rev. A. K. Warren, a former Bishop of Christchurch and a great-grandson of Henry Williams. Clergy from the Williams family and the Maori clergy assisted with the serving of communion to this vast congregation. Pupils from the Bay of Islands College formed the choir and the sermon was preached by the Rt Rev. Manu Bennett, Bishop of Aotearoa.

Following the service the Williams family descendants gathered outside the marae and entered in a procession led by Canon Sam Rangiihu, Canon Nigel Williams, a great-grandson of William, and Dr Henry Williams, who as the eldest son of Henry Williams’ eldest granson is the senior member of the family. In a speech of welcome, Col. J. C. Henare recalled that the land at the marae had been given to the Maori people by the missionary Henry Williams. Canon Williams spoke of his regret that he could not speak Maori as his tupuna could, and recalled hearing his father, Bishop Herbert, speaking fluently with the great Maori men of his day, and that Bishop Leonard and his brothers and sisters spoke Maori as their own language, while William had made the first dictionary.

Among the items performed by the hosts was a powhiri especially composed for the Williams family reunion by Tupi Puriri and Selwyn Wilson, with actions by Mrs Emma Kawiti.

Haere mai te manuhiri tuarangi ki Waitangi

Haere mai ki te whakanui i te Kaupapa o te hui

Haere mai, haere mai, haere mai.


Haere haere mai ra ki tenei marae,

Ki te mihi ki o tatou hoa,

Kua hui mai, i te ra nei,

Mo o ratou Tupuna.


Hoki hoki mai ra, ki Waitangi e,

E nga uri o nga Wiremu.

Hui mai ra, tangi mai ra

Homai ra te Aroha.


E tangi ana ‘Te Wiremu’ e

He tangi tohu whakamahara

Ki a koutou, ki a matou

Puta noa te Ao katoa.


[A translation of this is as follows: Welcome distinguished guests, welcome to Waitangi, welcome to enhance the purpose of the hui, Welcome, welcome, welcome.

Welcome to this marae, to greet all of our friends, who have gathered here on this day, for their ancestors.

Return, return to Waitangi all of you, the descendants of the Williams. Gather here, weep here, share your love.

[Henry] Williams is crying, a lament of remembrance to you all, to us all, throughout the world.]

Dr Henry Williams then spoke, greeting the elders and referring to the recent death of Pohara Ramaka, an elder of the marae.

‘At this time when our family celebrates the beginnings of our ancestors’ missionary work in the bay, it gives us the greatest pleasure that the Maori people should wish to be joining with us; and I thank most sincerely, on behalf of us all, the tribal elders, for inviting us to the Te Tii Marae.

‘When one reads of those difficult early days, one can’t help being impressed by the great friendliness, indeed loving affection, of those chiefs who gave protection to the missionaries against the belligerent acts of the other tribesmen. I refer particularly to Te Rarawa, Te Aupori, Ngati Raukawa, Ngati Kahungunu, Ngati Porou, Ngati Maru, and of course Ngapuhi.

‘One must be struck by the splendid memorial to my great-great-grandfather that they placed in front of the Paihia church, on which they described him as the father of the tribes, surely a wonderful compliment, showing the affectionate regard they had for him.

‘So today on this historic spot, we join in honouring two great New Zealanders; William – scholar, teacher, and Maori linguist, who with Mrs Colenso and others translated the Bible and prayer books, that were so readily sought after as quickly as they could be printed, by Maori people from far and near; and Henry – peacemaker, disciplinarian, man of action, of far-reaching influence in Maori-Pakeha relations, such that the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi became possible after 26 difficult, often heart-breaking, and perilous years of labour by the followers of Samuel Marsden in their efforts to being peace and Christianity to New Zealand. He gave this piece of land to Ngapuhi for a camping site, since when it has been shared by all tribes who are honoured and welcomed by Ngapuhi, and today is regarded by many as a national marae. It was here that the chiefs of the time met, deliberated, and debated at length whether or not to sign the Treaty, and so it is almost as important as the Treaty House itself.

‘Now, as one family, decendants of William and Henry Williams, we present to you this bell – we return to you the bell that those two brave men rang each Sunday morning, to remind the residents of the district that it was the sacred day. Since then its ringing has echoed round the country, wherever Maoris have answered the call, and taken their families to worship.

‘We wish, by making this presentation, to show with what high esteem we regard the Maori people, and by coming to this marae to meet you, we wish to shake you by the hand in friendship, forget any shyness we have for each other, and for our various age-groups to enjoy one another’s company. Thus we can show to the rest of New Zealand that after 150 years our family and the Maori people will always respect each other, and are proud to be fellow New Zealanders.

‘Good luck to you all, and may God go with you. Kia ora koutou.’

After the speeches, Dr Williams presented the bell, to be called ‘Te Wiremu’, which is housed in a belfry carved at John Taiapa’s school of carving at Rotorua. The bell was dedicated by Bishop Bennett and rung by Bishop Reeves.

‘Williams Family Commemorations’ in Te Ao Hou (1973), pp. 42-43.


A Christian View of the Treaty

What is a Christian view of Te Tiriti o Waitangi?/ The Treaty of Waitangi?

He aha nga whakaaro a nga karaitiana mo Te Tiriti o Waitangi/ Treaty of Waitangi?

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What is a Christian view of Te Tiriti o Waitangi?/ The Treaty of Waitangi? He aha nga whakaaro a nga karaitiana mo Te Tiriti o Waitangi/ Treaty of Waitangi?
The Treaty is a sacred covenant between the Maori peoples/iwi and the British peoples (Pakeha). He kawenata tapu Te Tiriti mo nga iwi e rua, te Maori me te Pakeha.
For many hundreds of years Maori had been the spiritual guardians and stewards of Aotearoa. As Christians we believe this was no accident. We believe that God, who is Creator and Sovereign, orders the times and seasons of the nations – He ordained that Maori found Aotearoa New Zealand and became its stewards. He maha nga mano rau tau e tiaki ana nga Mäori I te tinana o te wairua o Aotearoa. A he Karaitiana hoki tatou e marama kau ana he taonga tuku iho tenei ehara i te aitua. A, kai te u te whakapono ki waenganui I a taotu ko te Atua te kaihanga me te upoko o te kahui Ariki Tapairu, a nona ano hoki mana whakaara i te wa, i te maramataka ma nga iwi katoa – a koia ano hoki te kai waahi i te huarahi o te iwi Mäori i u mai nei hei kaitiaki mo tenei whenua mo Aotearoa.
The Treaty acknowledges and honours this stewardship. Through the Treaty the Maori peoples invited the British peoples into the land. It gave the British peoples their turangawaewae in New Zealand – their ‘place to stand’. Kai te tautoko a Te Tiriti me atawhai tetaonga tuku iho Kaitiaki-tanga. Otira na Te Tiriti ano ka tuwhera te tatau mai a nga Maori I ana powhiri i nga iwi o Inarangi ki te whakakapi I toona mana ki runga I toona ‘turangawaewae’ ko Aotearoa.
Through the Treaty the Maori also invited the Christian laws and government of the British. And the British Queen extended to Maori the protection of her government and guaranteed to them their lands and possessions. Ko te Tiriti ano hoki te pu whakaaetanga atu a te Maori ki nga ture a nga Karaitiana me nga ture o Ingarangi. A, ka tukuna nei e te Kuini o Ingarangi te mana o tonakawanatanga hei atawahi atu I te iwi Maori, me tana tatoko atu ano I te mana motuhake me te tino rangatiratanga o nga Mäori ki runga oona whenua me ana taonga katoa.
As Christians we acknowledge that the Queen’s government did not always honour the Treaty. These wrongs must be righted. We also acknowledge that Christian missionaries were involved in the Treaty. We believe they supported it as a good thing for Maori. We believe they honourably translated it. They also faithfully argued in support ofMaori when the Treaty was under attack from the government and settlers. He Karaitiana tatou e tino mohio ana I etahi wa kaore I whakamanatia e te Kawana a te Kuini Te Tiriti. Ko toona tikanga me whakatika enei nawe. Kai te mohio ano hoki tatou I tatokotia atu te Te Tiriti e nga mihinare. A I tautokotia atu e ratou I runga I te pono ka puta he hua ma nga maori. Otira, I te wa I whakamaori-tia ai e ratou e pono marika ana ratou ki te kaupapa. Otira, I tewa e hahani-tia ana e nga kawana te Tiriti epakari ana ta ratou tu ki te taha o nga Mäori.
As Christians we would plead with Maori not to see the missionaries and the Church as the same thing as the government. We would especially plead for Maori to understand that the God of the missionaries would never approve the dishonoring of the Treaty. And He would never approve the taking of land without just cause. Otira he karaitiana tatou e inoi ai ki nga Mäori kia kaua ratou e titiro kotaha ki nga mihinare me te haahi he orite ki te kawana.Apiti atu ki tenei ka aata inoi atu ano tatou kia tahuri mai ano nga maori ki pono o nga mihinare ki te ahua tuturu o to tatou Atua e kore ano hoki ia e whakaae kia takahia te mana o te Tiriti. E kore ano hoki ia e whakaae ki te whenua whanako ina koa me eke ki tetahi kaupapa pono.
We acknowledge these things and make these pleas because we want healing and reconciliation to be fostered among Maori and Pakeha. Even more so we want to see reconciliation come between Maori and Io – the Supreme God, and his son Ihu Karaiti – Jesus Christ. Kai te mohio tatou ki enei ahuatanga me te hiahia kia whaiwhakaarotia natemea kia eke ai rongo ki Waenganui I te iwi Mäori me te iwi Pakeha. Otira ko te tino wawata kia u ai te rongomau ki waenganui I te Mäori me Io me taana tama me Ihu Karaiti.
Grace and peace to you from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. (I Corinthians 1:3) Kia tau ki a koutou te aroha noa me te rangimarie, he mea na te Atua, na to tatou Matua, na te Ariki hoki, na Ihu Karaiti.(1Koriniti 1:3)
Written by Samuel Carpenter Translated into Maori by Matt Hakiaha and Rangi Tunoa Black
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